Wednesday, July 10, 2024

Craig, Colorado

  1. The main attraction around Craig is the Elkhead Mountains north of town. But it's for late season only when mosquitoes have thinned out. 
  2. COUNTY ROAD 27 is the main road that I accessed all the hikes from. Big rigs go up that. It leaves highway 13 at mp 102.8 and goes into the forest as FR110. Camp spots are along there with a Verizon signal. I took a good loop ride by following the FR110 all the way thru to county 82 at a T. I went right and stayed on the main road to Hayden. That's 60 or 70 miiles of dirt road that a Subaru type car can make. It took me a bit over 3 hours. Columbus Mtn would be one hike to try along the way. The Sawmill Creek Cg is no longer in use. And for good reason. It's a lousy spot. Posted 2024.
  3. FREEMAN RESERVOIR has a good road all the way. It leaves highway 13 at mp 103.2 and goes 9 miles to the lake. Trailheads are there but I didn't see much use for them. The lake has a day use fee but federal passes are accepted. Posted 2024.
  4. BLACK MOUNTAIN el 10845 is the high point. A loop can be done on the trails shown on the topo. I parked my Toyota at The Dike TH then rode my cycle a bit over 3 miles to the standard Black Mtn TH el 9800 and went up trail #1185  to the reg at N40 46969, W107 22147. Then on to a fork at 47483, 23425 and went left down to a T at trail #1144. I went left a short way to another fork but no sign except one pointing to Freeman Res. Trail 1144 goes left there on a grassy old road reading 46353, 24954 and that leads to The Dike TH.  5 and a half hours, 11.2 miles, 1800 gain says the app. The topo shows the trail junctions accurately.  It would shorten the hike a lot by ending at Freeman Res but a long shuttle. This is best when colors are turning late in the season due to vast numbers of Aspen along trail 1144. Posted late June, 2024.
  5. BLACK MTN, OLIPHANT, WELBA - all can be done in a loop with a 6 mile shuttle. I parked on trail #1144 at the Roaring Fork TH then rode my Zizzo to the Black Mtn TH. I walked the trail over the mountain then down the north side and circled to the saddle between Black and Oliphant. But I likely could have gone directly down to the saddle from point 10628 in grassy drainages and saved time and maybe 2 miles. If that doesn't look good, then walk the trail down the north side like I did and leave it at N40 48057, W107 24062 then to 48226, 24016 then to a logged area at 48307, 23939. I leveled off there to the road on the topo then took it to the saddle then followed the topo over Oliphant and then down to trail #1144 and up to Welba. The reg is at 49956, 23267. I retraced back to the trail and walked it out. 8 hours, 20 minutes, 3000 gain, 15 miles. Easy terrain, deadfall only a minor nuisance.  Another loop can be done from the Willow Creek TH. That measured out on my computer to be about the same mileage but wouldn't need a shuttle. But that would be the way to go for just Oliphant, Welba and even Buck Point. Posted 2024.
  6.  BEARS EARS PEAKS el 10582 has an easy 4wd road (FR1161C ) on the north side to el 9800. Cars can make it to a 4-way at el 9700 then ebike the rest. At the end of the road I stepped directly up to a grassy strip and walked to N40 46817, W107 14827 el 9900 then stayed along the left side of talus to the summit. 80 minutes, 800 gain. It goes parabolic and it better be dry, baby. I dodged most of the talus this way. The topo shows the roads. Posted 2024.
  7. SAWTOOTH MOUNTAIN el 9565 is approached with the same roads as Bears Ears. From the 4-way el 9700, go north on FR159 for nearly 2 miles to the Sawtooth ATV TH. The road is high clearance and mtn bikeable. The trail is closed to motorized use until July 1 but is so bad I wouldn't ride it anyway. I walked it to Sawtooth Park then on to a clearing at 48943, 15746 and then into the trees expecting to be turned back by deadfall. But nope, it was easy . I went to 48982, 15669 then 49018, 15625 and then 49035, 15560. I came to a game trail at 49051, 15484 that took me onto the spine. I went a few feet up that then veered right of center and had it easy to the summit. 3 hours, 1000 gain. A hiker with just a car could try coming in from one of the THs to the west. It might be bikeable late in the season when ATVs have smoothed it down. This is one of the better hikes thanks to the lovely Sawtooth Park. Posted 2024.

Friday, June 7, 2024

Westwater Canyon WSA, Utah

Caves in Star Canyon

A tiny stream at Marble Canyon

The old gate at Fish Park

  1. I put a track on peakbagger under Steamboat Mesa showing roads and stock trails. DS Road goes west out of Glade Park for 20 miles to a T at the end of pavement. Left is a good road all the way to Red Gap with lots of camps along the way and many with a good Verizon signal. It turns easy 4wd there with embedded rocks making for a bumpy ride. Right at the T is a good road like the topo shows. LOOP VERSION - a loop can be done around Big Triangle using the two good roads and the jeep road down Ryan Creek that branches off near point 5768. I went clockwise and hit the only really bad spot where the road drops to the creek at point 4944. I let my 125 skid down that but I couldn't get back up. Luckily, I didn't have to. The creek has easy fords and lots of cottonwoods but also cattle. I just followed the topo around back to the T. It's nearly 25 miles and ebikeable. I could have drove a jeep down Ryan Creek. The last water was where Coates Creek crosses the main road at point 4270 but that is subject to being cut off by ranchers as it was a few days later. Ryan Creek can't be cut off. Posted May, 2024.
  2. STEAMBOAT MESA el 6692 - I took a long loop ride to that using maintained roads from the end of DS Road at the T. The best road is the one going right at the T as the topo shows. It goes to a fork el 5250 near 1-333 on the topo. Left is easy 4wd back to the T. Right is maintained but a litte rougher. It crosses Granite Creek where there is a good stream and cottonwoods. The road goes on to the base of the mesa then a steep 4wd goes up but it had been recently bladed. I rode to the far end of the mesa where there is a camp spot with a great view and a Verizon signal. I stopped by Steamboat Benchmark and then took a walk to the high point at N38 47308, W109 04303. I rode back to the fork el 5250 then took the easy 4wd road back. It added up to 77 miles and 9 hours but that includes a detour I took to Scharf Mesa. I put a track on peakbagger. Posted June, 2024.
  3. STAR / MARBLE CANYONS LOOP - I went into Star on a stock trail then down the river on a game trail then out Marble on a stock trail. I parked on the main road at the jeep trail east of Coach BM then coasted 2 miles down the main road to the TH at a pullout east of peak 5897. I went up over the rim then down into Star at N38 56868, W109 06415. I strolled down and came to a minor fall at el 5400 with a tiny stream. That dried up el 5230 then I took a game trail on the right bank at 57320, 08515. It fades in half a mile so I drifted down to the creekbed and came to another tiny stream in a side canyon at 58025, 08851. Then I went up higher to a game trail at 58199, 08945 and on to 58455, 09101 then the trail fades where the canyon opens up. I walked to the river rim at peak 5046 and had a good trail again. At Funnel Falls there was a tiny stream south of point 4641 at the top of the falls. The next drainage had a stream but brushy. I had to skirt it by way of point 4690 then the trail took me to Marble where a stream was running down bedrock at the mouth. I could see that on the sat image. But it gets brushy all the way to the fork at el 5200.The left bank works at first then a game trail on the right bank at 59661, 07138 el 5000 skirts a lot of it. The trail comes back to the stream then I was just guessing which bank to use. At the fork el 5200 it cleared up and I went on to the stock trail at 58406, 06043 el 5500. It is at the skinny point SE of peak 5930. It goes up to a cliff then left and up the left side of a bowl to 58330, 06154 where it levels off and on to the jeep road that leads to the main road. 8 hours, 14 miles, and the 800 gain at the end on the trail and jeep road is the only big strain. That could be ameliorated by reversing this but would mean pedaling uphill on the bike shuttle. Marble had cattle decades ago but not Star. There may be more of the stock trail on the canyon floor because cattle can't go down the creekbed. Posted May 27, 2024.
  4. MARBLE CANYON RIM LOOP - I went down the west rim to the mouth then east thru the big gap at peak 5482 then on to the second canyon and out in that. I parked on the main road at the closed jeep road east of Coach BM and walked to the end of the jeep road where a stock trail starts. I walked it to where it drops then stayed level on a game trail to a class 3 chute south of peak 5930 at N38 58388, W109 06229. I went up to the next level then right a little to get on top. Point 5458 was my objective but first I detoured to the rim for a view then on to a slickrock drainage at 58980, 06868. It had potholes with water then at a minor drop was a hole 2 or 3 feet deep. I veered away there and on to point 5458 and down to the break in the rim at 59639, 08081. I went down weaviing a class 2 route and hit bottom then walked a game trail to Marble where I tanked up on water. I soon got on the left bank and on up to a trail at 59826, 07206 that led me to a view of the big gap. I went thru it and on to the second canyon I call Tadpole Canyon. I dropped to the creekbed at N39 00065, W109 06179 ( this is the only coordinates with N39 ). I went up using the left bank when it got choked. I found puddles at 59989, 06024 then walked the left bank nearly a fifth mile then dropped back to the creekbed. I had to deal with a few boulders then climbed left to the next level at 59338, 05235. That level was an easy stroll to the main fork at the 5800 line. I took the right fork staying low on the left bank or in the creekbed and came to a shallow pool with tadpoles at 58851, 04584. I climbed out there to the rim topping out east of peak 6121 then walked up to the main plateau where private land starts. I walked trails west of a butte on BLM land then headed for a closed BLM road at 57894, 04004. I was on private land for the last quarter mile to that road. I stayed right at forks on the road back to the start. 9 hours, 14 miles, and not much strenuous gain. It would have added a half hour if I skirted that last bit of private land. I hauled long pants and never wore them. The few patches of light brush didn't last very long. Posted May 31, 2024.
  5. STAR CANYON LOOP - I made a loop in the south fork using the north rim. I started on the closed jeep road east of Coach BM but later discovered it's better to use a stock trail west of the BM. It starts along the road east of peak 5897 at N38 56791, W109 06341. It tops out then it's a short walk to the rim of Star Canyon where a game trail runs along the rim skirting a big fall. It should be easy to walk north to the base of peak 6056 then go right to a break in the cliffs at 57714, 06419 then left up to the rim at 57662, 06462. I strolled down to a drainage at point 5377 not expecting that to go but it does. I dropped in at 57471, 08221 and down slopes. At the last cliff band, I approached on the left bank then into center and on to boulders then used the easy left bank to get to the floor. A sheep trail runs around the bend on the left bank and hits the creekbed. At el 5230 I came to a tiny stream and at el 5400 is a minor fall with a tiny stream. The water soon ends and I went on up staying in the right fork. There is a break on the right rim at 56868, 06415 to get back to the stock trail. A trail goes into it from the right along the cliff base. Another break is farther up at 57010, 06153 but would be longer. That should take 5 or 6 hours. Strenuous gain is about 600 feet. All class 1 and 2.  I had scattered light brush for less than 100 yards. No sign of cattle in the canyon, ever. I could have drove a car to the TH. Posted May 23, 2024. 
  6. STAR CANYON RIM 4WD ROAD -  the huge pleateau west of Star Canyon mouth is part of the WSA but everyone will keep on driving it unless an impregnable barrier is erected. It's a good road to the river by way of Cane Spring and just before the river is where the 4wd road branches off as the topo shows. At N38 57302, W109 12267 there is fork on the right that bypasses a rough spot. At 57403, 11729 el 4800 there is a break in the rim where ranchers took livestock down to Star Canyon eons ago. Sandstone speed bumps make for slow going then at point 4939 it smooths out. At nearly 7 miles there is a T at the rim. Left is a crappy DIY road and right goes to point 5614. I could have hiked down to Star from there. Some ebikes should make this. One hike option would be to walk up the road then back on the south rim. Posted 2024.
  7. MARBLE CANYON CENTER RIM - this is a skinny peninsula dividing the upper forks of the canyon at point 6041. I started on the closed jeep road east of Coach BM then left it down a slope at N38 57407, W109 04876 and followed game tracks skirting gullies to a main trail at 57746, 05056 then to another trail at 57925, 04947. That faded then I just headed left of peak 6211 and on out to the end of the peninsula. There is a class 2 break in the rim at 58568, 05708 and I didn't see any more cliffs below. But that's a hike for another day. I retraced back out. 4 hours, 7 miles and maybe 200 strenous gain. Easy hike with good views. 15 minutes in there is a minor arch on the left that attracts hikers. Posted 2024.
  8. COACH BENCHMARK el 6496 has a class 2 route up the NW side. Use the stock trail west of the BM. It starts along the road east of peak 5897 at N38 56791, W109 06341. It tops out then it's a short walk to the rim of Star Canyon where a game trail runs along the rim skirting a big fall. Go up canyon until it gets cluttered then get on the right bank and soon a wide dry fall el 6120 blocks the way. Bypasses are to the left and right, but left is easier with a view of the route up. Go up steep slopes at 57052, 05610 to the break at 57002, 05599. 3 hours, 400 noticeable gain.  I could have drove a car to the TH. Posted May, 2024.
  9. BIG TRIANGLE el 5700 has an easy 4wd road most of the way. It branches off the main road ( BLM 350 ) north of point 5835 at N38 54524, W109 05904. It goes nearly 2 and a half miles and tops out north of the summit as the topo shows. It's smooth that far but gets bumpy. Horsethief Spring had a small flow. Cattle were here decades ago but it's hard to tell now. This is mainly an excuse to take a ride on a two wheeler. Posted May, 2024.
  10. LITTLE TRIANGLE offers a good rim walk. I parked at the east end in a  canyon south of point 5682. If I had an ebike I would have spotted it another mile or so SW at a bad hill near point 4944. I walked up the canyon a third air mile and saw an easy break in the rim on the left. I got on top and followed the topo but had to stay near center to N38 53515, W109 07812 then at point 5456 I was able to wak the rim with a view into Renegade Creek. It had a stream lined with cottonwoods but too much brush to be any fun. I walked as far as peak 4842 then cut to a trail at 53559, 09795 then on to 53254, 09573 where I dropped to the road. I shortcutted a bend in the road using a cow trail on the left bank then on back to the start. 3 hours, 40 minutes with less than 1000 noticeable gain and most of that was on the road walk. I could have drove a car to point 5768 using BLM 350. Posted 2024.
  11. FISH PARK has one public road in. Take DS Road to mp 9.9 and turn on the graded Little Delores Road. Go 2 miles then left on a 4wd road that is easy for jeeps and ebikeable. It goes to a maze of forks at tubs el 6796. Turn back sharp on the fork that is most to the right. It goes to Fish Park. I went south there on the main road then at private land I turned west along that then north and parked short of point 6282. I walked the rim to point 6123 and to a neck where a stock trail goes across. I went on to the end of the rim then came back across the neck and up the drainage a short way to a pothole with green water. There, I climbed up to the right to a faint road and walked it back. 3 hours, 20 minutes, easy. The ride in and out on my 125 took 3 hours. It's about 11 miles to the park on the 4wd road. I posted a track for the road and hike on peakbagger under peak 6560. Whiley Hall posted a track that showed me the way in on the road. Peak 7280 is another one she did along the road in as well as Beth Lakin. No cattle for years but there were some around the tubs. Posted 2024.
  12. TOMS CANYON is along the Little Dolores Rd. A game trail running down it makes it easy. The mouth is blocked by private land, but a game trail goes thru the north saddle of peak 6463. I went in just south of point 6521 then came back on the rim via the saddle. Take DS Road to mp 9.9 and turn on the graded Little Delores Road. Go 2 miles then left on a 4wd road that is easy for jeeps and ebikeable. It goes up on the rim then a road goes hard right to point 6521. I dropped in on a game trail at N38 59326, W108 57272 then down to the last cliff at 59223, 57425. Animals are going down a few feet to the right and that should be easier. At bottom I walked a trail thru tall grass then it cleared up in a quarter mile. At el 6050 is a minor drop that had a tiny stream. There I got on the right bank and hit a good trail and went on down almost even with point 6297 then came back and up a game trail on the NW ridge of peak 6463. That took me to the north saddle then I went up the ridge to the 6320 line then cut right to N39 00258, W108 57522 el 6050 to a trail that put me on a shelf. When that fizzled I dropped to a lower shelf then had it easy on back to the rim road. 3 hours, 400 noticeable gain. A hiker with just a car could come in at the saddle and do the loop and it wouldn't add more than an hour. The rim road keeps going past point 6521 and down to the main road but is tougher. Posted June 10, 2024.
  13. 16.5 ROAD goes south out of Glade Park and thru the national forest then loops back to DS Road.Then it's 13 miles east back to Glade Park for a total of 40 miles or so. The part inside the national forest is rarely graded and not good for a car but there are a lot of camp spots with a cell signal. JS Road forks left just inside the forest boundary and goes to an ATV trail and that goes along the high ridge and back to 16.5 Road. That's a 16 mile loop and good for all two wheelers. I put a track on peakbagger under Pinon Mesa high point. There are some mountain bike trails in the area and shown on newer maps such as Cotrex. Posted 2024.

Sunday, May 26, 2024

Middle Mountain Backpack, Utah

  • Sheep herders were on Middle Mountain decades ago. I didn't realize that until after the hike. I followed their route as far as upper Blue Castle Canyon then took a route I could see goes to the top. The herders likely went to the head of Blue Castle at point 6317 then up. I will try that next time and make a loop. Posted 2024.
  • Middle Mountain el 7022 is NW of Green River. It's too long a hike for one day. An ancient stock trail climbs out of Blue Castle Canyon to el 5300. It tops out on the rim a half mile west of Blue Castle Butte where the rim turns north then it's a rim walk to the upper part of the canyon for base camp. It took me 3 hours from the parking spot on the north side of Blue Castle. The 700 gain up the trail is the only strain. The west side river road is paved to N39 05107, W110 08834 where a 4wd goes left for about 2 miles and drops into the wash on the north side of Blue Castle. I was able to ride my 125 a short way up the wash then walked it until I was reading 450 feet from the trail which starts at 05525, 12827 el 4700. A gully there with cairns leads 450 feet to the trail. It goes up and bends left then back right up to 05355, 12898 el 5050 then to 05331, 12990 el 5200 where it goes up to the base of the rim cliffs then right along that to the top at 05332, 13106 el 5300. A million cairns are there now so GPS shouldn't be needed once on the trail. I strolled up the rim to the upper part of the canyon where " canyon " appears on the topo. That's where the cottonwoods and seasonal water are. The class 2 drop in point is at  06138, 14986 el 5650. A tenth mile past that on the rim were a bunch of potholes with water. I dropped to the creekbed and started to panic when I saw it bone dry as opposed to intermittent flow on May 12, 2023 ( I found the rim potholes the next day ). I went up canyon and wet sand cheered me up then I came to a puddle shaded by a flat rock. Not much but it bailed me out. 10 minutes or so up canyon is a dry fall with pools of water on top. A sheep trail goes up around the right to it. Then comes a slot that is blocked. MIDDLE MOUNTAIN - for that, climb a slope up to the east rim but the final climb is a 15 foot class 3 crack which tops out at 06228, 15107 el 5650. It's easier going down than up. Then stroll down nearly a mile downstream to a canyon and go up the creekbed until 200 feet from 06560, 13877 then go up to it and level off to get into the right fork. Then go up a slope to a stairway at 06480, 13798 el 5900 that leads to the top of the ridge then it's obvious up that to the rim at 06782, 13691 el 6400. Some old cans are there. It's a good pj forest on to the summit at 08704, 16134 that had nothing, not even a cairn. Along the way were more cans at 07668, 15526 then at 08016, 15588 is a survey marker dated 1930. That took 7 hours with 1000 strenuous gain. UPPER CANYON - to get to the end of the canyon, walk either rim though the east one is shorter. Before the first fall, go left up a ridge with cairns at 07028, 15358 then bend right to 07064, 15434. Go up a little more to a shelf then level off to the top of the fall. The next fall has an obvious route around the left then it's a stroll to the main rim el 6317 where I stopped but later figured out that sheep herders must have had a route on up the rim.  Peak 6572 looked climbable. That's a 2 or 3 hour hike with 400 strenuous gain. It's best to do this over 3 days, 2 nights. I did it in 2 days and one night but had 10 hours of hiking one of the days. And going in late April reduces the chances of water issues. Every storm will leave behind thousands of potholes with water.  Posted May 18, 2024.

Friday, May 3, 2024

Meadow Valley Mountains, Nevada

Indian trail heading toward Bunker BM


  • The Meadow Valley Road accesses the east side. It runs north from Moapa along RR tracks for 8 miles to a gravel plant where pavement ends. Cars can go on a couple miles then it turns to easy 4wd. The first RR crossing after the plant is the one to take to get on the west side because the second one is a low trestle. I was picking up a good Verizon signal along that first 3 or 4 miles beyond pavement. Posted 2024.
    • BUNKER BENCHMARK el 4141 is the high point of the Bunker Hills. A good loop goes up the south canyon and down the east side on Indian trails. Take the Meadow Valley Road to the end of pavement then go another 5 miles to a fence at N36 51331, W114 40117. I could have drove a car all but the last 2 or 3 miles and ebiked it. Walk up canyon on the north edge and soon there is a fall. I went up a risky chute but it's safer to go up on the north bank to get around. Go on up and turn north at peak 2921. I had to go around the west side of the peak to dodge a fall. The reading is 51230, 44027. I went up that little canyon for 600 feet then took a trail on a tiny ridge to get into the main fork going north. Turn right at 52337, 44648 el 3200 to get south of the peak then go up a ridge at 52552, 44481 to get on the south ridge. I left my pack on the ridge then went up and came back down to the saddle north of peak 3742. I dropped down the drainage to the first little drop then went right to get on the ridge then down to the wash. At 52621, 43392 there is a faint trail on a smooth ridge. I went on down to 52685, 42951 where the trail vanished. I kept going down to 52634, 42598 then hit another trail at 52610, 42141. I walked it to 52593, 41605 then 52485, 41311 then at  52369, 40512 it goes down a ridge left of center to the road. A bike stashed there would have saved me a mile back to the start. Not counting the road walk, it took 6 hours, 8 minutes and 11.4 miles with 2300 gain but the first 1400 is easy washes. I put a track on peakbagger. The last bit of trail gets rocky. Posted 2024.
    • FARRIER WASH INDIAN TRAIL -  this trail runs north of the wash and likely connects to Arrow Canyon. I walked it west from the Meadow Valley Rd then back along the wash. I took the Meadow Valley Rd to the end of pavement the went another 1.3 miles and parked just south of Farrier Wash. I rode my  Zizzo on north and soon there is a RR crossing but bikes can stay on the east side for another mile then pass under a low trestle and on to a wash at N36 49656, W114 39593. I walked a fifth mile up the wash and the trail is obvious going up the right bank. In a few feet it forks, I stayed left on to a wash crossing at 49543, 40903. It runs up a minor wash for .14 mile then goes up on the left bank. It stays low along the right side of hills to 49718, 41473 then enters a wash at 49792, 41729. I stayed in the wash then turned left up a gully at 49783, 41948. I went up it 300 feet then left to the rim then went right to the trail at 49793, 42105. It goes down to a wash then I went up that to the trail at 49662, 42780 then on to 49575, 43044 then to 49580, 43366 then it goes a third mile to the rim of Farrier. I dropped down to the wash but that's a boring OHV route. It's better to stay on the rim and walk it down to near peak 2132 then cut over the south bank at 47954, 40891. Then walk along the edge and soon a trail crosses then there is a small rock ring. Next, a hill is in the way so I veered right to a ridge at 48287, 40193 and it has a rock ring at the base. I walked the ridge staying on the right edge on to a point then left down a gully a gully to the tracks and my cycle. Another trail is running the base there. 4 hours, 9 or 10 miles, hardly an noticeable gain. I had a Verizon signal on the rim of Farrier. Posted 2024.
    • MEADOW VALLEY MOUNTAINS high point el 5700 is informally known as Cathedral Peak. Take US 93 to mp LN 7.6. Turn onto the graded Kane Springs Rd and go nearly 11 miles to a short side road at N37 02984, W114 50170. You can see the entire route from there. Walk to a minor ridge at 02407, 49379 el 3250. Follow that as it swings left and goes all the way to the main canyon mouth. Go up canyon until walls close in at el 4600. Here it's best to use sheep trails up on the left bank. When those fizzle out you come back to the creekbed and it really goes parabolic. Aim for the main saddle at 01688, 47666 el 5200. Now go up the easy ridge to the summit block. A class 3 crack on the SW side at 01860, 47573 is the easiest route up. It's not dangerous. 5 hours and 6 minutes, 2800 gain. Plane wreckage is along the way. I found a pair of Craftsman locking pliers clamped on one piece. An RV pullout is along the graded road nearly a mile in from US 93. Posted 2015.

    Saturday, April 27, 2024

    Wildflowers at Tecopa

    Tecopa Peak

     One of the highlights was a 12 mile walk I took in the badlands north of town near Chappo Spring.